CES in Europe

Constant Effort Site (CES) ringing was started in Great Britain in 1981 and became a national project in 1986. Since then it has become established across Europe to help monitor the abundance, productivity and adult survival rates of a range of common passerine species.

View the background, detailed of the methods used, some preliminary results and a list of publications

The guidelines for CES ringing in Europe may be downloaded here.


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