All CES Publications

Papers from Constant Effort Studies (excluding annual reports)

(last updated April 2022)

** Newly added **

McLean, N., Kruuk, L. E., Van Der Jeugd, H. P., Leech, D., van Turnhout, C. A., & van de Pol, M. (2022) Warming temperatures drive at least half of the magnitude of long-term trait changes in European birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119: e2105416119 (

Morrison C.A., Butler S.J., Clark J.A., Arizaga J., Baltà O., Cepák J., Nebot A.L., Piha M., Thorup K., Wenninger T., Robinson R.A. & Gill J.A. (2022) Demographic variation in space and time: implications for conservation targeting. Royal Society Open Science 9: 211671 (


Baillie, S.R., Green, R.E., Boddy, M. & Buckland, S.T. (1986) An evaluation of the Constant Effort Sites Scheme. BTO Research Report No. 21. BTO Thetford, Norfolk, UK.

Baillie, S.R. (1990) Integrated population monitoring of breeding birds in Britain and Ireland. Ibis 132: 151-166.

Ballard, G., Geupel, G.R., Nur, N. & Gardali, T. (2003) Long-term declines and decadal patterns in population trends of songbirds in western North America, 1979–1999. Condor 105: 737-755.

Balmer, D. & Wernham, C. (1998) Constant Effort Ringing in Britain and Ireland. EURING Newsletter Vol. 2.

Berthold, P., Fliege, G., Querner, U. & Winkler, H. (1986) The development of songbird populations in central Europe: analysis of trapping data. Journal für Ornithologie 127: 397-437.

Berthold, P. & Fiedler, W. Changes in the populations of small birds in central Europe, as evidenced by 32 years of trapping data: numbers are mostly declining. Vogelwarte 43: 97-102. [in German, English summary]

Blake, J.G. & Hoppes, W.G. (1986) Influence of resource abundance on use of tree-fall gaps by birds in an isolated woodlot. Auk 103: 328-340.

Boddy, M. (1993) Whitethroat Sylvia communis population studies during 1981-1991 at a breeding site on the Lincolnshire coast. Ringing & Migration 14: 73-83.

Boddy, M. (1994) Survival/return rates and juvenile dispersal in an increasing population of Lesser Whitethroats Sylvia curruca. Ringing & Migration 15: 65-78.

Bonner, S.J., Thomson, D.L. & Schwarz, C.J. (2009) Time-varying covariates and semi-parametric regression in capture–recapture: an adaptive spline approach. Environmental & Ecological Statistics 3: 657-675.

Buckland, S.T. & Baillie, S.R. (1987) Estimating survival rates from organised mist-netting programmes. Acta Ornithol. 23: 89-100.

Burton, K.M. & DeSante, D.F. (2004) Effects of mist-netting frequency on capture rates at Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) stations. Studies in Avian Biology 29: 7-11

Cave, V.M., Freeman, S.N., Brooks, S.P., King, R. & Balmer, D.E. (2009) On Adjusting for Missed Visits in the Indexing of Abundance from "Constant Effort" Ringing. Environmental & Ecological Statistics 3: 949-963.

Cave, V.M., King, R. & Freeman, S.N. (2010) An integrated population model from constant-effort bird ringing data. Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics 15: 119-137

DeSante, D.F., Burton, K.M., Saracco, J.F. & Walker, B.L. (1995) Productivity indices and survival rate estimates from MAPS, a continent-wide programme of constant-effort mist netting in North America. Journal Applied Statistics 22: 935-947.

DeSante, D.F., O’Grady, D.R. & Pyle, P. (1999) Measures of productivity and survival derived from standardised mist-netting are consistent with observed population changes. Bird Study 46: S178-188.

DeSante, D.F. & Nott, M.P. (2000) An overview of the North American Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. Institute for Bird Populations, Pt Reyes, Ca.

DeSante, D.F., & O'Grady, D.R. (2000) The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) Program 1997 and 1998 report. Bird Populations 5: 49-101.

DeSante, D., Nott, M.P. & O’Grady, D.R. (2001) Identifying the proximate demographic cause(s) of population change by modelling spatial variation in productivity, survivaorship and population trends. Ardea 89: 185-208.

DeSante, D.F., Saracco, J.F., O'Grady, D.R., Burton, K.M. & Walker, B.L. (2004) Methodological considerations of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) Program. Studies in Avian Biology 29: 28-45.

du Feu, C. & McMeeking, J. (1991) Does constant effort netting estimate juvenile abundance? Ringing & Migration 12: 118-123.

du Feu, C. & McMeeking, J. (2004) Relationship of juveniles captured in constant-effort netting and local abundance. Studies in Avian Biology 29: 57-62.

Dubos, N., Le Viol, I., Robert, A., Téplitsky, C., Ghislain, M., Dehorter, O., Julliard, R. & P.-Y. Henry  (2018). Disentangling the effects of spring anomalies in climate and net primary production on body size of temperate songbirds. Ecography  41:1319–1330 (

Dubos, N., Dehorter, O., & Henry, P.-Y. & Le Viol, I. (2019). Thermal constraints on body size depend on the population position within the species’ thermal range in temperate songbirds. Global Ecology and Biogeography 28:96-106 (

Eglington, S.M., Julliard, R., Gargallo, G., van der Jeugd, H.J., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Baillie, S.R. & Robinson, R.A. (2015) Latitudinal gradients in the productivity of European migrant warblers have not shifted northwards during a period of climate change. Global Ecology & Biogeography 24:427-436.

Freeman, S.N., Wernham, C.V. & Balmer, D.E. (2001) Long-term changes in the productivity of common songbirds in Britain and Ireland from constant effort ringing. Unpublished. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, Norfolk, UK.

Galván, I., Barba, E., Piculo, R., Cantó, J.L., Cortés, V., Monrós, J.S., Atiénzar, F. & Proctor, H. (2008) Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21: 133–144.

Geissler, P. (1996) Review of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) Program. Institute for Bird Populations, Pt Reyes, Ca.
Haapala, J., Heikinheimo, M. & Saurola, P. (2000) Sisamaan seurantapyynti 2000 - alituiset sateet heikensivat pesimistulosta. Linnut - Vuosikirja.

Harrison, N.M., Whitehouse, M.J., Prince, P.A. & Huin, N. (2000) What problems do local habitat change represent for the Constant Effort Site ringing scheme? Ringing & Migration 20: 1-8.

Holloway, G.J. & Edwards, P.J. (1989) Biometrics, capture data and sex ratio in relation to migration in blackcaps. Ringing & Migration 10: 108-112.

Jiménez, J., Manuel Hernández, J., Feliú, J., Carrasco, M. &  Moreno-Opo, R. (2018) Breeding in a Dry Wetland. Demographic Response to Drought in the Common Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Ardeola 65:247-259 (

Julliard, R., Lois, G., Jarry, G. & Couvet, D. (2001) Oiseaux communs en France: Variations d'abondance entre 1989 et 1998, Evaluation du programme STOC-capture. Alauda 69: 1, 75-86.

Juillard, R. (2004) Estimating the contribution of survival and recruitment to large scale population dynamics. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27: 417-426.

Juillard, R., Jiguet, F. & Couvet, D. (2004) Evidence for the impact of global warming on the long-term population dynamics of common birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 271:S490-S492.

Julliard, R., Jiguet, F. (2005) Statut de conservation en 2003 des oiseaux communs nicheurs en France selon 15 ans de programme STOC [Conservation status of common breeding birds in France: 15 years of STOC program]. Alauda 73: 345-356.

Kampichler, C. & van der Jeugd, H.P. (2011) Monitoring passerine reproduction by constant effort ringing: evaluation of the efficiency of trend detection. Ardea 99: 129–136

Kralj, J. & Dolenec, Z. (2008) First arrival dates of the Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) to Central Croatia in the early 20th century and at the turn of the 21st century. Central European Journal of Biology 3: 295-298.

McLean, N; van der Jeugd, H.P.; van de Pol, M. (2018). High intra-specific variation in avian body condition responses to climate limits generalisation across species. PLoS ONE 13: e0192401. (

Meister, B. & Köppen, U. (2008) On correlations between population trend and breeding success – results of the Integrated Monitoring of Songbird Populations (IMS) 1997– 2006 in the five eastern federal states of Germany. Berichte Vogelwarte Hiddensee 18: 24- 31. [in German, English summary]

Miles, W., Freeman, S.N., Harrison, N.M. & Balmer, D.E. (2007) Measuring passerine productivity using constant effort sites: the effect of missed visits. Ringing & Migration 23: 231-237.

Norman, S.C. (1992) Dispersal and site fidelity in lesser whitethroats Sylvia curruca. Ringing & Migration 13: 167-174.

Nott, M.P. & DeSante, D.F. (2002) Demographic monitoring and identification of transients in mark-recapture models. In: J.M. Scott & P. Heglund, Predicting species occurrences: issues of scale and accuracy. Island Press, New York.

Peach, W.J., Buckland, S.T. & Baillie, S.R. (1990) Estimating survival rates using mark-recapture data from multiple ringing sites. The Ring 13: 87-102.

Peach, W., Baillie, S. & Underhill, L. (1991) Survival of British Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus in relation to west African rainfall. Ibis 133: 300-305.

Peach, W.J. (1993) Combining mark-recapture data sets for small passerines. In: Marked Individuals in the Study of Bird Populations (eds J.-D. Lebreton & P.M. North), pp. 107-122. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

Peach, W.J., Crick, H.Q.P. & Marchant, J.H. (1995) The demography of the decline in the British willow warbler population. Journal of Applied Statistics 22: 905-922.

Peach, W.J., du Feu, C. & McMeeking, J. (1995) Site tenacity and survival rates of Wrens Troglodytes troglodytes and Treecreepers Certhia familiaris in a Nottinghamshire wood. Ibis 137: 497-507.

Peach, W.J., Buckland, S.T. & Baillie, S.R. (1996) The use of constant effort mist-netting to measure between-year changes in the abundance and productivity of common passerines. Bird Study 43: 142-156.

Peach, W.J., Baillie, S.R. & Balmer, D.E. (1998) Long-term changes in the abundance of passerines in Britain and Ireland as measured by constant effort mist-netting. Bird Study 45: 257-275.

Peach, W.J., Furness, R.W. & Brenchley (1999) The use of ringing to monitor changes in the numbers and demography of birds. Ringing & Migration 19: S57-66.

Peach, W.J., Siriwardena, G.M. & Gregory, R.D. (1999) Long-term changes on over-winter survival explain the decline of reed buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in Britain. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 798-811.

Peach, W.J., Baillie, S.R. & Buckland, S.T. (2004) Current practices in the British Trust for Ornithology Constant Effort Sites scheme and comparisons of temporal changes in mist-net captures with changes in spot-mapping counts at the extensive scale. Studies in Avian Biology 29: 46-56.

Piha, M., Valkama, J., Väisänen, R., Saurola, P. (2009) Comparison of population indices derived from the Finnish Constant Effort Site and National Bird Monitoring Scheme data. Avocetta 33:131-136.

Pollo, R., Muzzatti, M. & Volponi, S. (2018) Estimation of the demographic parameters of Common Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus breeding in three wetlands of central and northern Italy through data of Capture-Marking-Recapture (CRM). Avocetta 42:21-20.

Ralph, C.J. & Dunn, E.H. (2004) Monitoring bird populations using mist nets. Cooper Ornithological Society, Camarillo.

Roberts, R.N. & Muir, D. (1998) Data from a constant-effort mist net station. North American Bird Bander 23: 33-35.

Robinson, R. (2014) El proyecto de estaciones de esfuerzo constante en Europa CES (constant effort sites). Revista de Anillamiento 33:6-10. [Translator: by A. Leal].

Robinson, R.A., Freeman, S.N., Balmer, D.E. & Grantham, M.J. (2007) Cetti’s Warbler: anatomy of an expanding population. Bird Study 54: 230-235.

Robinson, R.A., Julliard, R & Saracco, J.F. (2009) Constant effort: studying avian population processes using standardized ringing. Ringing & Migration 24, 199-204.

Rosenberg, D.K., DeSante, D.F., McKelvey, K.S. & Hines, J.E. (1999) Monitoring survival rates of Swainson’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales. Bird Study 46: S198-S208.

Saracco, J.F., DeSante, D.F. & Kaschube, D.R. (2008) Assessing landbird monitoring programs and demographic causes of population change. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 1665-1673.

Saracco, J.F., Royle, J.A., DeSante, D.F. & Gardner, B. (2010) Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities. Ecology 91: 1885-1891.

Telenský, T., Klvaňa, P., Jelínek, M. Cepak, J. & Reif, J. (2020) The influence of climate variability on demographic rates of avian Afro-palearctic migrants. Scientific Reports 10:17592 (

Underhill, L.G. (1990) Bayesian estimation of population size. The Ring 13: 253-254.

Vanning, K. & Torgersen, DS. (2004) CES–prosjektet på Frøylandsvatnet. Ringmerkaren 18: 131-135.

Volponi S. & Tenan S. 2008. Il Progetto di Inanellamento a Sforzo Costante (PRISCO) in Veneto: prime analisi e potenziali sviluppi. Atti V Convegno Faunisti Veneti. Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Venezia, 58(Suppl.): 223-229.

Volponi S., Emiliani D. & Magnani A. 1997. Il progetto Constant Effort Sites nell'Oasi di Punte Alberete (Ravenna). Atti IX Convegno Italiano di Ornitologia. Avocetta, 21:150.

White, P.J.C., Stoate, C., Szczur, J. & Norris, K. (2008) Investigating the effects of predator removal and habitat management on nest success and breeding population size of a farmland passerine: a case study. Ibis 150:S178-S190.

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